Situated on Lombok, the Mount Rinjani National Park, covering 41,330 hectares, has been a significant natural reserve since its establishment in 1997. This park boasts a diverse ecosystem, encompassing tropical rainforests, savannas, grasslands, and alpine forests. Notably, Mount Rinjani also is Indonesia’s second-highest volcano, towering at 3,726 meters.

Remarkably, Geopark Rinjani Lombok stands out as Indonesia’s inaugural geopark meticulously prepared for submission to the Global Geopark Network – UNESCO. This initiative has been in motion since 2007, championed by the Indonesian Association of Geologists (IAGI) and the Geological Agency.

While the ascent to the summit of Mount Rinjani presents a challenge, the panoramic views of the surrounding area and the Segara Anak crater lake make it a rewarding endeavor. Visitors can engage in various activities such as camping, birdwatching, and enjoying the natural hot springs. Notably, the park serves as a habitat for endangered species like Javan rusa deer, long-tailed macaques, and various bird species.

Adding to the park’s allure, the indigenous Sasak people pay homage to Mount Rinjani through traditional rituals and ceremonies. Within the park, several villages provide visitors with the opportunity to delve into the rich cultural tapestry of the Sasak people.

To sum up, Mount Rinjani National Park is a destination of choice for both nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers. Its offerings span from challenging treks to immersive cultural experiences. Given its awe-inspiring beauty, diverse biodiversity, and cultural significance, it undoubtedly stands as a jewel in Indonesia’s natural heritage.


  1. The eruption of 1257 changed the history of life people in the world.
  2. Volcanoes are a laboratory for evolution caldera formation.
  3. It is located in a biodiversity transition zone in Asia and Australia.
  4. Lombok Island’s water source.
  5. Having forests is important in mitigation efforts for global climate change.


Lombok Island is a volcanic island. This island was formed by volcanic activity since the Miocene Epoch and is dominated by Tertiary-era volcanoes (11-12 million years ago until the present).

rinjani volcanoThe Tertiary-age volcanic complex that has emerged on Lombok Island is a result of the subduction process of the Australian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

The Quaternary-age volcanoes are divided into old volcanic complexes and young volcanic complexes.

  1. Mount Punikan Complex (old volcano).
  2. Sembalun Caldera Complex and Mount Nangi (old volcano).
  3. Mount Rinjani Complex (young volcano).

Evolution of Mount Rinjani and Its Caldera.

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    First Stage (pre-caldera):

    The Ancient Mount Rinjani (Samalas), initially reaching a height of
    +4,000 meters above sea level, formed during the Pleistocene epoch
    (far older than 12,000 years ago), followed by early eruptions.

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    Second Stage (pre-caldera):

    A new volcano emerged on the eastern side of Ancient Rinjani (Samalas) around 6,000 years ago, giving rise to the formation of the Young Rinjani cone.

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    Third Stage (syn-caldera):

    A tremendous (paroxysmal) eruption occurred from the Ancient Rinjani/Samalas cone in the 13th century (in the year 1257), resulting in the formation of the Rinjani Caldera, measuring approximately +7.5 x 6 km.

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    Fourth Stage (post-caldera):

    Following the eruption in 1257, there was another eruption from the crater of the Young Rinjani Volcano (Muncar Crater) located on the eastern side of the Rinjani Caldera.

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    Fifth Stage (post-caldera):

    Subsequently, the caldera became filled with water, forming Lake Segara Anak, concurrently with the formation of the cones of Mount Barujari, Mount Rombongan, and Mount Anak Barujari. The eruptions continued from the eastern slope of Mount Barujari and concluded at the end of December 2015.


Impact of the Mega Eruption of Samalas 1257.

The eruption of the ancient Rinjani (Samalas) in 1257 was the largest in the world in the last 10,000 years, slightly larger than the Tambora eruption. The eruption of the old Rinjani/Samalas expelled 40 cubic kilometers of material up to a height of 43 kilometers into the Earth’s atmosphere. The eruption’s material reached Europe, Greenland, and Antarctica.


North America
The summer cooling of the year 1258. Summer temperatures at several points in North America were recorded to range from -8.99 degrees Celsius to 8.95 degrees Celsius.

Eruption materials also fell from the stratosphere to the North Pole and the South Pole of the Earth and subsequently deposited within the atmospheric layers.

Acid rain in the year 1259 in Greenland carried volcanic dust particles that later settled in the ice layers. Research on these deposits indicates that the Samalas eruption was the largest in the last 10 thousand years.

Weather anomalies throughout the year 1258 included:
Dry fog in France, a lunar eclipse anomaly in England, and cold weather, heavy rain, and autumn flooding in France, Germany, Italy, and England. There were also crop failures and famine in England, France, Germany, and Italy. The weather anomalies persisted for several years after 1258, resulting in a severe winter in Iceland (1260-1261) and an extremely dry summer in other parts of continental Europe.

An epidemic (plague) occurred in Iraq, Syria, and southeastern Turkey. Climate change further worsened living conditions in the Middle East following the fall of Baghdad, the center of Islamic governance under the Abbasid Caliphate, to the Mongols in 1258.

The eruption buried the village of Pamatan along with its inhabitants and significantly altered the shape of the island of Lombok. In Bali, there was no sovereign kingdom for 64 years starting from the year 1260.

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